### Volume 1, Issue 3

##### Published 2024-10-07

##### Capybara and Tsubaki: Verifiable Random Functions from Group Actions and Isogenies

Yi-Fu Lai

In this work, we introduce two post-quantum Verifiable Random Function (VRF) constructions based on abelian group actions and isogeny group actions with a twist. The former relies on the standard group action Decisional Diffie-Hellman (GA-DDH) assumption. VRFs serve as cryptographic tools allowing users to generate pseudorandom outputs along with publicly verifiable proofs. Moreover, the residual pseudorandomness of VRFs ensures the pseudorandomness of unrevealed inputs, even when multiple outputs and proofs are disclosed. Our work aims at addressing the growing demand for post-quantum VRFs, as existing constructions based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) or classical DDH-type assumptions are vulnerable to quantum threats.

In our contributions, our two VRF constructions, rooted in number-theoretic pseudorandom functions, are both simple and secure over the random oracle model. We introduce a new proof system for the factorization of group actions and set elements, serving as the proofs for our VRFs. The first proposal is based on the standard GA-DDH problem, and for its security proof, we introduce the (group action) master Decisional Diffie-Hellman problem over group actions, proving its equivalence to the standard GA-DDH problem. In the second construction, we leverage quadratic twists to enhance efficiency, reducing the key size and the proof sizes, expanding input size. The scheme is based on the square GA-DDH problem.

Moreover, we employ advanced techniques from the isogeny literature to optimize the proof size to 39KB and 34KB using CSIDH-512 without compromising VRF notions. The schemes feature fast evaluations but exhibit slower proof generation. To the best of our knowledge, these constructions represent the first two provably secure VRFs based on isogenies.

##### Amortizing Circuit-PSI in the Multiple Sender/Receiver Setting

Aron van Baarsen, Marc Stevens

Private set intersection (PSI) is a cryptographic functionality for two parties to learn the intersection of their input sets, without leaking any other information. Circuit-PSI is a stronger PSI functionality where the parties learn only a secret-shared form of the desired intersection, thus without revealing the intersection directly. These secret shares can subsequently serve as input to a secure multiparty computation of any function on this intersection.

In this paper we consider several settings in which parties take part in multiple Circuit-PSI executions with the same input set, and aim to amortize communications and computations. To that end, we build up a new framework for Circuit-PSI around generalizations of oblivious (programmable) PRFs that are extended with offline setup phases. We present several efficient instantiations of this framework with new security proofs for this setting. As a side result, we obtain a slight improvement in communication and computation complexity over the state-of-the-art semi-honest Circuit-PSI protocol by Bienstock et al. (USENIX '23). Additionally, we present a novel Circuit-PSI protocol from a PRF with secret-shared outputs, which has linear communication and computation complexity in the parties' input set sizes, and is able to realize a stronger security notion. Lastly, we derive the potential amortizations over multiple protocol executions, and observe that each of the presented instantiations is favorable in at least one of the multiple-execution settings.

##### A short-list of pairing-friendly curves resistant to the Special TNFS algorithm at the 192-bit security level

Diego F. Aranha, Georgios Fotiadis, Aurore Guillevic

For more than two decades, pairings have been a fundamental tool for designing elegant cryptosystems, varying from digital signature schemes to more complex privacy-preserving constructions. However, the advancement of quantum computing threatens to undermine public-key cryptography. Concretely, it is widely accepted that a future large-scale quantum computer would be capable to break any public-key cryptosystem used today, rendering today's public-key cryptography obsolete and mandating the transition to quantum-safe cryptographic solutions. This necessity is enforced by numerous recognized government bodies around the world, including NIST which initiated the first open competition in standardizing post-quantum (PQ) cryptographic schemes, focusing primarily on digital signatures and key encapsulation/public-key encryption schemes. Despite the current efforts in standardizing PQ primitives, the landscape of complex, privacy-preserving cryptographic protocols, e.g., zkSNARKs/zkSTARKs, is at an early stage. Existing solutions suffer from various disadvantages in terms of efficiency and compactness and in addition, they need to undergo the required scrutiny to gain the necessary trust in the academic and industrial domains. Therefore, it is believed that the migration to purely quantum-safe cryptography would require an intermediate step where current classically secure protocols and quantum-safe solutions will co-exist. This is enforced by the report of the Commercial National Security Algorithm Suite version 2.0, mandating transition to quantum-safe cryptographic algorithms by 2033 and suggesting to incorporate ECC at 192-bit security in the meantime. To this end, the present paper aims at providing a comprehensive study on pairings at 192-bit security level. We start with an exhaustive review in the literature to search for all possible recommendations of such pairing constructions, from which we extract the most promising candidates in terms of efficiency and security, with respect to the advanced Special TNFS attacks. Our analysis is focused, not only on the pairing computation itself, but on additional operations that are relevant in pairing-based applications, such as hashing to pairing groups, cofactor clearing and subgroup membership testing. We implement all functionalities of the most promising candidates within the RELIC cryptographic toolkit in order to identify the most efficient pairing implementation at 192-bit security and provide extensive experimental results.

##### Block Cipher Doubling for a Post-Quantum World

Ritam Bhaumik, André Chailloux, Paul Frixons, Bart Mennink, María Naya-Plasencia

In order to maintain a similar security level in a post-quantum setting, many symmetric primitives should have to double their keys and increase their state sizes. So far, no generic way for doing this is known that would provide convincing quantum security guarantees. In this paper we propose a new generic construction, QuEME, that allows one to double the key and the state size of a block cipher in such a way that a decent level of quantum security is guaranteed. The QuEME design is inspired by the ECB-Mix-ECB (EME) construction, but is defined for a different choice of mixing function than what we have seen before, in order to withstand a new quantum superposition attack that we introduce as a side result: this quantum superposition attack exhibits a periodic property found in collisions and breaks EME and a large class of its variants. We prove that QuEME achieves n-bit security in the classical setting, where n is the block size of the underlying block cipher, and at least (n/6)-bit security in the quantum setting. We finally propose a concrete instantiation of this construction, called Double-AES, that is built with variants of the standardized AES-128 block cipher.

##### Computing Orientations from the Endomorphism Ring of Supersingular Curves and Applications

Jonathan Komada Eriksen, Antonin Leroux

This work introduces several algorithms related to the computation of orientations in endomorphism rings of supersingular elliptic curves. This problem is at the heart of several results regarding the security of oriented-curves in isogeny-based cryptography. Under the Deuring correspondence, it can be expressed purely in terms of quaternion and boils down to representing integers by ternary quadratic forms. Our main contribution is to show that there exist efficient algorithms to solve this problem for quadratic orders of discriminant $n$ up to $O(p^{4/3})$. Our approach improves upon previous results by increasing this bound from $O(p)$ to $O(p^{4/3})$ and removing some heuristics. We introduce several variants of our new algorithm and provide a careful analysis of their asymptotic running time (without heuristic when it is possible). The best proven asymptotic complexity of one of our variants is $O(n^{3/4}/p)$ in average. The best heuristic variant has a complexity of $O(p^{1/3})$ for big enough $n$. We then introduce several results regarding the computation of ideals between oriented orders. The first application of this is a simplification of the known reduction from vectorization to computing the endomorphism ring, removing the assumption on the factorization of the discriminant. As a second application, we relate the problem of computing fixed-degree isogenies between supersingular curves to the problem of computing orientations in endomorphism rings, and we show that for a large range of degree $d$, our new algorithms improve on the state-of-the-art, and in important special cases, the range of degree $d$ for which there exist a polynomial-time algorithm is increased. In the most special case we consider, when both curves are oriented by a small degree endomorphism, we show heuristically that our techniques allow the computation of isogenies of any degree, assuming they exist.

##### Memory adds no cost to lattice sieving for computers in 3 or more spatial dimensions

Samuel Jaques

The security of lattice-based crytography (LWE, NTRU, and FHE) depends on the hardness of the shortest-vector problem (SVP). Sieving algorithms give the lowest asymptotic runtime to solve SVP, but depend on exponential memory. Memory access costs much more in reality than in the RAM model, so we consider a computational model where processors, memory, and meters of wire are in constant proportions to each other. While this adds substantial costs to route data during lattice sieving, we modify existing algorithms to amortize these costs and find that, asymptotically, a classical computer can achieve the previous RAM model cost of $2^{0.2925d+o(d)}$ to sieve a $d$-dimensional lattice for a computer existing in 3 or more spatial dimensions, and can reach $2^{0.3113d+o(d)}$ in 2 spatial dimensions, where “spatial dimensions” are the dimensions of the physical geometry in which the computer exists.

Since this result implies an increased cost in 2 spatial dimensions, we make several assumptions about the constant terms of memory access and lattice attacks so that we can give bit security estimates for Kyber and Dilithium. These estimates support but do not increase the security categories claimed in the Kyber and Dilithium specifications, at least with respect to known attacks.

##### Optimizing $c$-sum BKW and Faster Quantum Variant for LWE

Jinzheng Cao, Qingfeng Cheng, Jian Weng

The Learning with Errors (LWE) problem has become one of the most prominent candidates of post-quantum cryptography, offering promising potential to meet the challenge of quantum computing. From a theoretical perspective, optimizing algorithms to solve LWE is a vital task for the analysis of this cryptographic primitive. In this paper, we propose a fine-grained time/memory trade-off method to analyze c-sum BKW variants for LWE in both classical and quantum models, then offer new complexity bounds for multiple BKW variants determined by modulus q, dimension k, error rate alpha, and stripe size b. Through our analysis, optimal parameters can be efficiently found for different settings, and the minimized complexities are lower than existing results. Furthermore, we enhance the performance of c-sum BKW in the quantum computing model by adopting the quantum Meet-in-the-Middle technique as c-sum solver instead of the naive c-sum technique. Our complexity trade-off formula also applies to the quantum version of BKW, and optimizes the theoretical quantum time and memory costs, which are exponentially lower than existing quantum c-sum BKW variants.

##### Implicit Factorization with Shared Any Bits

Chunzhi Zhao, Junqi Zhang, Jinzheng Cao, Qingfeng Cheng, Fushan Wei

At PKC 2009, May and Ritzenhofen proposed the implicit factorization problem (IFP). They showed that it is undemanding to factor two h-bit RSA moduli N1=p1q1, N2=p2q2 where q1, q2 are both αh-bit, and p1, p2 share uh>2αh the least significant bits (LSBs). Subsequent works mainly focused on extending the IFP to the cases where p1, p2 share some of the most significant bits (MSBs) or the middle bits (MBs). In this paper, we propose a novel generalized IFP where p1 and p2 share an arbitrary number of bit blocks, with each block having a consistent displacement in its position between p1 and p2, and we solve it successfully based on Coppersmith’s method. Specifically, we generate a new set of shift polynomials to construct the lattice and optimize the structure of the lattice by introducing a new variable z=p1. We derive that we can factor the two moduli in polynomial time when u>2(n+1)α(1−α^1/(n+1)) with p1, p2 sharing n blocks. Further, no matter how many blocks are shared, we can theoretically factor the two moduli as long as u>2αln(1/α). In addition, we consider two other cases where the positions of the shared blocks are arbitrary or there are k>2 known moduli. Meanwhile, we provide the corresponding solutions for the two cases. Our work is verified by experiments.

##### Quantum Procedures for Nested Search Problems with Applications in Cryptanalysis

André Schrottenloher, Marc Stevens

In this paper we study search problems that arise very often in cryptanalysis: nested search problems, where each search layer has known degrees of freedom and/or constraints. A generic quantum solution for such problems consists of nesting Grover's quantum search algorithm or amplitude amplification (QAA) by Brassard et al., obtaining up to a square-root speedup on classical algorithms. However, the analysis of nested Grover or QAA is complex and introduces technicalities that in previous works are handled in a case-by-case manner. Moreover, straightforward nesting of l layers multiplies the complexity by a constant factor (pi/2)^l.

In this paper, we aim to remedy both these issues and introduce a generic framework and tools to transform a classical nested search into a quantum procedure. It improves the state-of-the-art in three ways: 1) our framework results in quantum procedures that are significantly simpler to describe and analyze; 2) it reduces the overhead factor from (pi/2)^l to sqrt(l); 3) it is simpler to apply and optimize, without needing manual quantum analysis. We give generic complexity formulas and show that for concrete instances, numerical optimizations enable further improvements, reducing even more the gap to an exact quadratic speedup.

We demonstrate our framework by giving a tighter analysis of quantum attacks on reduced-round AES.

##### Efficient Maliciously Secure Oblivious Exponentiations

Carsten Baum, Jens Berlips, Walther Chen, Ivan B. Damgård, Kevin M. Esvelt, Leonard Foner, Dana Gretton, Martin Kysel, Ronald L. Rivest, Lawrence Roy, Francesca Sage-Ling, Adi Shamir, Vinod Vaikuntanathan, Lynn Van Hauwe, Theia Vogel, Benjamin Weinstein-Raun, Daniel Wichs, Stephen Wooster, Andrew C. Yao, Yu Yu

Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions (OPRFs) allow a client to evaluate a pseudorandom function (PRF) on her secret input based on a key that is held by a server. In the process, the client only learns the PRF output but not the key, while the server neither learns the input nor the output of the client. The arguably most popular OPRF is due to Naor, Pinkas and Reingold (Eurocrypt 2009). It is based on an Oblivious Exponentiation by the server, with passive security under the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. In this work, we strengthen the security guarantees of the NPR OPRF by protecting it against active attacks of the server. We have implemented our solution and report on the performance. Our main result is a new batch OPRF protocol which is secure against maliciously corrupted servers, but is essentially as efficient as the semi-honest solution. More precisely, the computation (and communication) overhead is a multiplicative factor $o(1)$ as the batch size increases. The obvious solution using zero-knowledge proofs would have a constant factor overhead at best, which can be too expensive for certain deployments. Our protocol relies on a novel version of the DDH problem, which we call the Oblivious Exponentiation Problem (OEP), and we give evidence for its hardness in the Generic Group model. We also present a variant of our maliciously secure protocol that does not rely on the OEP but nevertheless only has overhead $o(1)$ over the known semi-honest protocol. Moreover, we show that our techniques can also be used to efficiently protect threshold blind BLS signing and threshold ElGamal decryption against malicious attackers.

##### Truncated multiplication and batch software SIMD AVX512 implementation for faster Montgomery multiplications and modular exponentiation

Laurent-Stéphane Didier, Nadia El Mrabet, Léa Glandus, Jean-Marc Robert

This paper presents software implementations of batch computations, dealing with multi-precision integer operations. In this work, we use the Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) AVX512 instruction set of the x86-64 processors, in particular the vectorized fused multiplier-adder VPMADD52. We focus on batch multiplications, squarings, modular multiplications, modular squarings and constant time modular exponentiations of 8 values using a word-slicing storage. We explore the use of Schoolbook and Karatsuba approaches with operands up to 4108 and 4154 bits respectively. We also introduce a truncated multiplication that speeds up the computation of the Montgomery modular reduction in the context of software implementation. Our Truncated Montgomery modular multiplication improvement offers speed gains of almost 20 % over the conventional non-truncated versions. Compared to the state-of-the-art GMP and OpenSSL libraries, our speedup modular operations are more than 4 times faster. Compared to OpenSSL BN_mod_exp_mont_consttimex2 using AVX512 and madd52* (madd52hi or madd52lo) in 256-bit registers, in fixed-window exponentiations of sizes $1024$ and $2048$, our 512-bit implementation provides speedups of respectively 1.75 and 1.38, while the 256-bit version speedups are 1.51 and 1.05 for $1024$ and $2048$-bit sizes (batch of 4 values in this case).

##### Unpacking Needs Protection A Single-Trace Secret Key Recovery Attack on Dilithium

Ruize Wang, Kalle Ngo, Joel Gärtner, Elena Dubrova

Most of the previous attacks on Dilithium exploit side-channel information which is leaked during the computation of the polynomial multiplication cs1, where s1 is a small-norm secret and c is a verifier's challenge. In this paper, we present a new attack utilizing leakage during secret key unpacking in the signing algorithm. The unpacking is also used in other post-quantum cryptographic algorithms, including Kyber, because inputs and outputs of their API functions are byte arrays. Exploiting leakage during unpacking is more challenging than exploiting leakage during the computation of cs1 since c varies for each signing, while the unpacked secret key remains constant. Therefore, post-processing is required in the latter case to recover a full secret key. We present two variants of post-processing. In the first one, a half of the coefficients of the secret s1 and the error s2 is recovered by profiled deep learning-assisted power analysis and the rest is derived by solving linear equations based on t = As1 + s2, where A and t are parts of the public key. This case assumes knowledge of the least significant bits of t, t0. The second variant uses lattice reduction to derive s1 without the knowledge of t0. However, it needs a larger portion of s1 to be recovered by power analysis. We evaluate both variants on an ARM Cortex-M4 implementation of Dilithium-2. The experiments show that the attack assuming the knowledge of t0 can recover s1 from a single trace captured from a different from profiling device with a non-negligible probability.

##### Improving Differential-Neural Cryptanalysis

Liu Zhang, Zilong Wang, Baocang Wang

Our first objective is to enhance the capabilities of differential-neural distinguishers by applying more deep-learning techniques, focusing on handling more rounds and improving accuracy. Inspired by the Inception Block in GoogLeNet, we adopted a design that uses multiple parallel convolutional layers with varying kernel sizes before the residual block to capture multi-dimensional information. Additionally, we expanded the convolutional kernels in the residual blocks, enlarging the network's receptive field. In the case of Speck32/64, our efforts yield accuracy improvements in rounds 6, 7, and 8, enabling the successful training of a 9-round differential-neural distinguisher. As for Simon32/64, we developed a differential-neural distinguisher capable of effectively handling 12 rounds while achieving noteworthy accuracy enhancements in rounds 9, 10, and 11.

Additionally, we utilized neutral bits to ensure the required data distribution for launching a successful key recovery attack when using multiple-ciphertext pairs as input for the neural network. Meanwhile, we redefined the formula for time complexity based on the differences in prediction speeds of the distinguisher between a single-core CPU and a GPU. Combining these various advancements allows us to considerably reduce the time and data complexity of key recovery attacks on 13-round Speck32/64. Furthermore, we used knowledge distillation techniques to reduce the model size, accelerating the distinguisher's prediction speed and reducing the time complexity. In particular, we achieved a successful 14-round key recovery attack by exhaustively guessing a 1-round subkey. For Simon32/64, we accomplished a 17-round key recovery attack for the first time and reduced the time complexity of the 16-round key recovery attack.

##### Side-Channel Linearization Attack on Unrolled Trivium Hardware

Soichiro Kobayashi, Rei Ueno, Yosuke Todo, Naofumi Homma

This paper presents a new side-channel attack (SCA) on unrolled implementations of stream ciphers, with a particular focus on Trivium. Most conventional SCAs predominantly concentrate on leakage of some first rounds prior to the sufficient diffusion of the secret key and initial vector (IV). However, recently, unrolled hardware implementation has become common and practical, which achieves higher throughput and energy efficiency compared to a round-based hardware. The applicability of conventional SCAs to such unrolled hardware is unclear because the leakage of the first rounds from unrolled hardware is hardly observed. In this paper, focusing on Trivium, we propose a novel SCA on unrolled stream cipher hardware, which can exploit leakage of rounds latter than 80, while existing SCAs exploited intermediate values earlier than 80 rounds. We first analyze the algebraic equations representing the intermediate values of these rounds and present the recursive restricted linear decomposition (RRLD) strategy. This approach uses correlation power analysis (CPA) to estimate the intermediate values of latter rounds. Furthermore, we present a chosen-IV strategy for a successful key recovery through linearization. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed SCA achieves the key recovery of a 288-round unrolled Trivium hardware implementation using 360,000 traces. Finally, we evaluate the performance of unrolled Trivium hardware implementations to clarify the trade-off between performance and SCA (in)security. The proposed SCA requires 34.5 M traces for a key recovery of 384-round unrolled Trivium implementation and is not applicable to 576-round unrolled hardware.

##### FINALLY: A Multi-Key FHE Scheme Based on NTRU and LWE

Jeongeun Park, Barry van Leeuwen, Oliver Zajonc

Multi-key fully homomorphic encryption (MKFHE), a generalization of fully homomorphic encryption (FHE), enables a computation over encrypted data under multiple keys. The first MKFHE schemes were based on the NTRU primitive, however these early NTRU based FHE schemes were found to be insecure due to the problem of over-stretched parameters. Recently, in the case of standard (non-multi key) FHE a secure version, called FINAL, of NTRU has been found. In this work we extend FINAL to an MKFHE scheme, this allows us to benefit from some of the performance advantages provided by NTRU based primitives. Thus, our scheme provides competitive performance against current state-of-the-art multi-key TFHE, in particular reducing the computational complexity from quadratic to linear in the number of keys.

##### Unforgeability of Blind Schnorr in the Limited Concurrency Setting

Franklin Harding, Jiayu Xu

Blind signature schemes enable a user to obtain a digital signature on a message from a signer without revealing the message itself. Among the most fundamental examples of such a scheme is blind Schnorr, but recent results show that it does not satisfy the standard notion of security against malicious users, One-More Unforgeability (OMUF), as it is vulnerable to the ROS attack. However, blind Schnorr does satisfy the weaker notion of sequential OMUF, in which only one signing session is open at a time, in the Algebraic Group Model (AGM) + Random Oracle Model (ROM), assuming the hardness of the Discrete Logarithm (DL) problem.

This paper serves as a first step towards characterizing the security of blind Schnorr in the limited concurrency setting. Specifically, we show that blind Schnorr satisfies OMUF when at most two signing sessions can be concurrently open (in the AGM+ROM, assuming DL). Our argument suggests that it is plausible that blind Schnorr satisfies OMUF for up to polylogarithmically many concurrent signing sessions. Our security proof involves interesting techniques from linear algebra and combinatorics.

##### Cryptanalysis of TS-Hash

Aleksei Udovenko

This note presents attacks on the lightweight hash function TS-Hash proposed by Tsaban, including a polynomial-time preimage attack for short messages (at most $n/2$ bits), high-probability differentials, a general subexponential-time preimage attack, and linearization techniques.

##### Uncloneable Quantum Advice

Anne Broadbent, Martti Karvonen, Sébastien Lord

The famous no-cloning principle has been shown recently to enable a number of uncloneable cryptographic primitives, including the copy-protection of certain functionalities. Here we address for the first time unkeyed quantum uncloneablity, via the study of a complexity-theoretic tool that enables a computation, but that is natively unkeyed: quantum advice. Remarkably, this is an application of the no-cloning principle in a context where the quantum states of interest are not chosen by a random process. We establish unconditional constructions for promise problems admitting uncloneable quantum advice and, assuming the feasibility of quantum copy-protecting certain functions, for languages with uncloneable advice. Along the way, we note that state complexity classes, introduced by Rosenthal and Yuen (ITCS 2022) — which concern the computational difficulty of synthesizing sequences of quantum states — can be naturally generalized to obtain state cloning complexity classes. We make initial observations on these classes, notably obtaining a result analogous to the existence of undecidable problems.

Our proof technique defines and constructs ingenerable sequences of finite bit strings, essentially meaning that they cannot be generated by any uniform circuit family with non-negligible probability. We then prove a generic result showing that the difficulty of accomplishing a computational task on uniformly random inputs implies its difficulty on any fixed, ingenerable sequence. We use this result to derandomize quantum cryptographic games that relate to cloning, and then incorporate a result of Kundu and Tan (arXiv 2022) to obtain uncloneable advice. Applying this two-step process to a monogamy-of-entanglement game yields a promise problem with uncloneable advice, and applying it to the quantum copy-protection of pseudorandom functions with super-logarithmic output lengths yields a language with uncloneable advice.

##### Non-interactive Private Multivariate Function Evaluation using Homomorphic Table Lookup

Ruixiao Li, Hayato Yamana

To address security issues in cloud computing, fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) enables a third party to evaluate functions using ciphertexts that do not leak information to the cloud server. The remaining problems of FHE include high computational costs and limited arithmetic operations, only evaluating additions and multiplications. Arbitrary functions can be evaluated using a precomputed lookup table (LUT), which is one of the solutions for those problems. Previous studies proposed LUT-enabled computation methods 1) with bit-wise FHE and 2) with word-wise FHE. The performance of LUT-enabled computation with bit-wise FHE drops quickly when evaluating BigNum functions because of the complexity being O(s·2^d·m), where m represents the number of inputs, d and s represent the bit lengths of the inputs and outputs, respectively. Thus, LUT-enabled computation with word-wise FHE, which handles a set of bits with one operation, has also been proposed; however, previous studies are limited in evaluating multivariate functions within two inputs and cannot speed up the evaluation when the domain size of the integer exceeds 2N, where N is the number of elements packed into a single ciphertext. In this study, we propose a non-interactive model, in which no decryption is required, to evaluate arbitrary multivariate functions using homomorphic table lookup with word-wise FHE. The proposed LUT-enabled computation method 1) decreases the complexity to O(2^d·m/l), where l is the element size of FHE packing; 2) extends the input and output domain sizes to evaluate multivariate functions over two inputs; and 3) adopts a multidimensional table for enabling multithreading to reduce latency. The experimental results demonstrate that evaluating a 10-bit two-input function and a 5-bit three-input function takes approximately 90.5 and 105.5 s with 16-thread, respectively. Our proposed method achieves 3.2x and 23.1x speedup to evaluate two-bit and three-bit 3-input functions compared with naive LUT-enabled computation with bit-wise FHE.

##### Plaintext-based Side-channel Collision Attack

Lichao Wu, Sébastien Tiran, Guilherme Perin, Stjepan Picek

Side-channel Collision Attacks (SCCA) is a classical method that exploits information dependency leaked during cryptographic operations. Unlike collision attacks that seek instances where two different inputs to a cryptographic algorithm yield identical outputs, SCCAs specifically target the internal state, where identical outputs are more likely. Although SCCA does not rely on the pre-assumption of the leakage model, it explicitly operates on precise trace segments reflecting the target operation, which is challenging to perform when the leakage measurements are noisy. Besides, its attack performance may vary dramatically, as it relies on selecting a reference byte (and its corresponding leakages) to “collide” other bytes. A poor selection would lead to many bytes unrecoverable. These two facts make its real-world application problematic.

This paper addresses these challenges by introducing a novel plaintext-based SCCA. We leverage the bijective relationship between plaintext and secret data, using plaintext as labels to train profiling models to depict leakages from varying operations. By comparing the leakage representations produced by the profiling model instead of the leakage segmentation itself, all secret key differences can be revealed simultaneously without processing leakage traces. Furthermore, we propose a novel error correction scheme to rectify false predictions further. Experimental results show that our approach significantly surpasses the state-of-the-art SCCA in both attack performance and computational complexity (e.g., training time reduced from approximately three hours to five minutes). These findings underscore our method's effectiveness and practicality in real-world attack scenarios.

##### The Perils of Limited Key Reuse: Adaptive and Parallel Mismatch Attacks with Post-processing Against Kyber

Qian Guo, Erik Mårtensson, Adrian Åström

The Module Learning With Errors (MLWE)-based Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) Kyber is NIST's new standard scheme for post-quantum encryption. As a building block, Kyber uses a Chosen Plaintext Attack (CPA)-secure Public Key Encryption (PKE) scheme, referred to as Kyber.CPAPKE. In this paper we study the robustness of Kyber.CPAPKE against key mismatch attacks.

We demonstrate that Kyber's security levels can be compromised if having access to a few mismatch queries of Kyber.CPAPKE, by striking a balance between the parallelization level and the cost of lattice reduction for post-processing. This highlights the imperative need to strictly prohibit key reuse in Kyber.CPAPKE.

We further propose an adaptive method to enhance parallel mismatch attacks, initially proposed by Shao et al. at AsiaCCS 2024, thereby significantly reducing query complexity. This method combines the adaptive attack with post-processing via lattice reduction to retrieve the final secret key entries. Our method proves its efficacy by reducing query complexity by 14.6 % for Kyber512 and 7.5 % for Kyber768/Kyber1024.

Furthermore, this approach has the potential to improve multi-value Plaintext-Checking (PC) oracle-based side-channel attacks and fault-injection attacks against Kyber itself.

##### Lower Bound on Number of Compression Calls of a Collision-Resistance Preserving Hash

Debasmita Chakraborty, Mridul Nandi

The collision-resistant hash function is an early cryptographic primitive that finds extensive use in various applications. Remarkably, the Merkle-Damgård and Merkle tree hash structures possess the collision-resistance preserving property, meaning the hash function remains collision-resistant when the underlying compression function is collision-resistant. This raises the intriguing question of whether reducing the number of underlying compression function calls with the collision-resistance preserving property is possible. In pursuit of addressing these inquiries, we prove that for an ${\ell}n$-to-$sn$-bit collision-resistance preserving hash function designed using $r$ $tn$-to-$n$-bit compression function calls, we must have $r \geq \lceil (\ell-s)/(t-1) \rceil $. Throughout the paper, all operations other than the compression function are assumed to be linear (which we call linear hash mode).

##### Discrete Logarithm Factory

Haetham Al Aswad, Emmanuel Thomé, Cécile Pierrot

The Number Field Sieve and its variants are the best algorithms to solve the discrete logarithm problem in finite fields (except for the weak small characteristic case). The Factory variant accelerates the computation when several prime fields are targeted. This article adapts the Factory variant to non-prime finite fields of medium and large characteristic. A precomputation, solely dependent on an approximate finite field size and an extension degree, allows to efficiently compute discrete logarithms in a constant proportion of the finite fields of the given approximate size and extension degree. We combine this idea with two other variants of NFS, namely the tower and special variant. This combination improves the asymptotic complexity. We also notice that combining our approach with the MNFS variant would be an unnecessary complication as all the potential gain of MNFS is subsumed by our Factory variant anyway. Furthermore, we demonstrate how Chebotarev's density theorem allows to compute the density of finite fields that can be solved with a given precomputation. Finally, we provide experimental data in order to assess the practical reach of our approach.

##### Matching radar signals and fingerprints with MPC

Benjamin Hansen Mortensen, Mathias Karsrud Nordal, Martin Strand

Vessels can be recognised by their navigation radar due to the characteristics of the emitted radar signal. This is particularly useful if one wants to build situational awareness without revealing one's own presence. Most countries maintain databases of radar fingerprints but will not readily share these due to national security regulations. Sharing of such information will generally require some form of information exchange agreement.

However, all parties in a coalition benefit from correct identification. We use secure multiparty computation to match a radar signal measurement against secret databases and output plausible matches with their likelihoods. We also provide a demonstrator using MP-SPDZ.

##### Special Soundness Revisited

Douglas Wikström

We generalize and abstract the problem of extracting a witness from a prover of a special sound protocol into a combinatorial problem induced by a sequence of matroids and a predicate, and present a parametrized algorithm for solving this problem.

The parametrization provides a tight tradeoff between the running time and the extraction error of the algorithm, which allows optimizing the parameters to minimize: the soundness error for interactive proofs, or the extraction time for proofs of knowledge.

In contrast to previous work we bound the distribution of the running time and not only the expected running time. Tail bounds give a tighter analysis when applied recursively and a concentrated running time.

##### Special Soundness in the Random Oracle Model

Douglas Wikström

We generalize the optimal knowledge extractor for constant-round special sound protocols presented by Wikström (2018) to a knowledge extractor for the corresponding non-interactive Fiat-Shamir proofs in the random oracle model and give an exact analysis of the extraction error and running time.

Relative the interactive case the extraction error and the running time are both asymptotically increased by a multiplicative factor equal to the number of oracle queries made by the prover.

Through carefully chosen notation, novel concepts, and a technical lemma, we effectively recast the extraction problem of the notoriously complex non-interactive case to the interactive case. Thus, our approach may be of independent interest.

##### A Note on Related-Tweakey Impossible Differential Attacks

Xavier Bonnetain, Virginie Lallemand

In this note we review the technique proposed at ToSC 2018 by Sadeghi et al. for attacks built upon several related-tweakey impossible differential trails. We show that the initial encryption queries are improper and lead the authors to misevaluate a filtering value in the key recovery phase. We identified 4 other papers (from Eurocrypt, DCC, and 2 from ToSC) that follow on the results of Sadeghi et al. and in three of them the flawed technique was reused.

We thus present a careful analysis of these types of attacks and give generic complexity formulas similar to the ones proposed by Boura et al. at Asiacrypt 2014. We apply these to the aforementioned papers and provide patched versions of their attacks. The main consequence is an increase in the memory complexity. We show that in many cases (a notable exception being quantum impossible differentials) it is possible to recover the numeric time estimates of the flawed analysis, and in all cases we were able to build a correct attack reaching the same number of rounds.

##### Multi Designated Verifier Ring Signatures

Sebastian Kolby, Elena Pagnin, Sophia Yakoubov

We study signatures well suited for sensitive applications (e.g. whistleblowing) where both the signer's anonymity and deniability are important. Two independent lines of work have tackled these two goals: ring signatures ensure the signer's anonymity (within a set of signers, called a ring), and — separately — multi designated verifier signatures ensure that all the intended recipients agree on whether a signature is valid, while maintaining the signer's deniability by preventing the intended recipients from convincing an outsider of the validity of the signature. In this paper, we introduce multi designated verifier ring signatures (MDVRS), which simultaneously offer both signer anonymity and deniability. This makes MDVRS uniquely suited for sensitive scenarios.

Following the blueprint of Damgård et al (TCC'20) for multi designated verifier signatures, we introduce provably simulatable designated verifier ring signatures (PSDVRS) as an intermediate building block which we then compile into an MDVRS. We instantiate PSDVRS in a concretely efficient way from discrete logarithm based sigma protocols, encryption and commitments.

##### Small Public Exponent Brings More: Improved Partial Key Exposure Attacks against RSA

Yansong Feng, Abderrahmane Nitaj, Yanbin Pan

Let (N,e) be a public key of the RSA cryptosystem, and d be the corresponding private key. In practice, we usually choose a small e for quick encryption. In this paper, we improve partial private key exposure attacks against RSA with a small public exponent e. The key idea is that under such a setting we can usually obtain more information about the prime factor of N and then by solving a univariate modular polynomial with Coppersmith's method, N can be factored in polynomial time. Compared to previous results, we reduce the number of d's leaked bits needed to mount the attack by log_2 (e) bits. Furthermore, our experiments show that for 1024-bit N, our attack can achieve the theoretical bound on a personal computer, which verified our attack.

##### Constant-Round YOSO MPC Without Setup

Sebastian Kolby, Divya Ravi, Sophia Yakoubov

YOSO MPC (Gentry et al., Crypto 2021) is a new MPC framework where each participant can speak at most once. This models an adaptive adversary’s ability to watch the network and corrupt or destroy parties it deems significant based on their communication. By using private channels to anonymous receivers (e.g. by encrypting to a public key whose owner is unknown), the communication complexity of YOSO MPC can scale sublinearly with the total number N of available parties, even when the adversary’s corruption threshold is linear in N (e.g. just under N/2). It was previously an open problem whether YOSO MPC can achieve guaranteed output delivery in a constant number of rounds without relying on trusted setup. In this work, we show that this can indeed be accomplished. We demonstrate three different approaches: the first two (which we call YaOSO and YOSO-GLS) use two and three rounds of communication, respectively. Our third approach (which we call YOSO-LHSS) uses O(d) rounds, where d is the multiplicative depth of the circuit being evaluated; however, it can be used to bootstrap any constant-round YOSO protocol that requires setup, by generating that setup within YOSO-LHSS. Though YOSO-LHSS requires more rounds than our first two approaches, it may be more practical, since the zero knowledge proofs it employs are more efficient to instantiate. As a contribution of independent interest, we introduce a verifiable state propagation UC functionality, which allows parties to send private message which are verifiably derived in the “correct” way (according to the protocol in question) to anonymous receivers. This is a natural functionality to build YOSO protocols on top of.

##### The Uber-Knowledge Assumption: A Bridge to the AGM

Balthazar Bauer, Pooya Farshim, Patrick Harasser, Markulf Kohlweiss

The generic-group model (GGM) and the algebraic-group model (AGM) have been exceptionally successful in proving the security of many classical and modern cryptosystems. These models, however, come with standard-model uninstantiability results, raising the question of whether the schemes analyzed under them can be based on firmer standard-model footing.

We formulate the uber-knowledge (UK) assumption, a standard-model assumption that naturally extends the uber-assumption family to knowledge-type problems. We justify the soundness of UK in both the bilinear GGM and the bilinear AGM. Along the way we extend these models to account for hashing into groups, an adversarial capability that is available in many concrete groups—In contrast to standard assumptions, hashing may affect the validity of knowledge assumptions. These results, in turn, enable a modular approach to security in the GGM and the AGM.

As example applications, we use the UK assumption to prove knowledge soundness of Groth's zero-knowledge SNARK (EUROCRYPT 2016) and of KZG polynomial commitments (ASIACRYPT 2010) in the standard model, where for the former we reuse the existing proof in the AGM without hashing.

##### Almost pairwise independence and resilience to deep learning attacks

Rustem Takhanov

Almost pairwise independence (API) is a quantitative property of a class of functions that is desirable in many cryptographic applications. This property is satisfied by Learning with errors (LWE)-mappings and by special Substitution-Permutation Networks (SPN). API block ciphers are known to be resilient to differential and linear cryptanalysis attacks. Recently, security of protocols against neural network-based attacks became a major trend in cryptographic studies. Therefore, it is relevant to study the hardness of learning a target function from an API class of functions by gradient-based methods.

We propose a theoretical analysis based on the study of the variance of the gradient of a general machine learning objective with respect to a random choice of target function from a class. We prove an upper bound and verify that, indeed, such a variance is extremely small for API classes of functions. This implies the resilience of actual LWE-based primitives against deep learning attacks, and to some extent, the security of SPNs. The hardness of learning reveals itself in the form of the barren plateau phenomenon during the training process, or in other words, in a low information content of the gradient about the target function. Yet, we emphasize that our bounds hold for the case of a regular parameterization of a neural network and the gradient may become informative if a class is mildly pairwise independent and a parameterization is non-regular. We demonstrate our theory in experiments on the learnability of LWE mappings.

##### A Security Analysis of Restricted Syndrome Decoding Problems

Ward Beullens, Pierre Briaud, Morten Øygarden

Restricted syndrome decoding problems (R-SDP and R-SDP($G$)) provide an interesting basis for post-quantum cryptography. Indeed, they feature in CROSS, a submission in the ongoing process for standardizing post-quantum signatures.

This work improves our understanding of the security of both problems. Firstly, we propose and implement a novel collision attack on R-SDP($G$) that provides the best attack under realistic restrictions on memory. Secondly, we derive precise complexity estimates for algebraic attacks on R-SDP that are shown to be accurate by our experiments. We note that neither of these improvements threatens the updated parameters of CROSS.

##### Key Rank Estimation Methods: Comparisons and Practical Considerations

Rebecca Hay, Elisabeth Oswald

New proposals for scalable key rank estimation methods have appeared recently, in particular the sampling based approach MCRank. The idea is that one can consistently estimate the key rank by sampling only a small portion of the key space as a “proxy”, leading to both an accurate and scalable approach, at least in comparison with another approach based on histograms. We show that the (earlier) GEEA algorithm is in fact a sampling based algorithm, and provide an in-depth comparison between GEEA (when adapted to produce rank estimates rather than guessing entropy estimates), GM bounds, MCRank and the currently most performant counting based rank estimation as implemented in the Labynkyr library. We find that although MCRank does live up to the promised accuracy and scalability for probability-based distinguishers, it fails to handle cases with unusual distinguisher distributions.

Furthermore, we put forward a novel proposal for a highly scalable key rank estimation method by introducing the notion of an “attacker budget”. Our proposal is based on the idea that, in particular for very long keys, the exact key rank is less important than the knowledge whether a key is within a certain bound. Thus our “budget approach” is based on efficiently checking if the result of an attack is such that the attacker's budget suffices for successful enumeration. Our budget approach scales linearly with the key size and thus enables security estimations even for post-quantum key lengths.

##### Efficiently Detecting Masking Flaws in Software Implementations

Nima Mahdion, Elisabeth Oswald

Software implementations of cryptographic algorithms often use masking schemes as a countermeasure against side channel attacks. A number of recent results show clearly the challenge of implementing masking schemes in such a way, that (unforeseen) micro-architectural effects do not cause masking flaws that undermine the intended security goal of an implementation. So far, utilising a higher-order version of the non-specific (fixed-vs-random) input test of the Test Vector Leakage Assessment (TVLA) framework has been the best option to identify such flaws. The drawbacks of this method are both its significant computation cost, as well as its inability to pinpoint which interaction of masking shares leads to the flaw. In this paper we propose a novel version, the fixed-vs-random shares test, to tackle both drawbacks. We explain our method and show its application to three case studies, where each time it outperforms its conventional TVLA counterpart. The drawback of our method is that it requires control over the shares, which, we argue, is practically feasible in the context of in-house evaluation and testing for software implementations.

##### An analysis of the Crossbred Algorithm for the MQ Problem

Damien Vidal, Claire Delaplace, Sorina Ionica

The Crossbred algorithm is currently the state-of-the-art method for solving overdetermined multivariate polynomial systems over $\mathbb{F}_2$. Since its publication in 2017, several record breaking implementations have been proposed and demonstrate the power of this hybrid approach. Despite these practical results, the complexity of this algorithm and the choice of optimal parameters for it are difficult open questions. In this paper, we prove a bivariate generating series for potentially admissible parameters of the Crossbred algorithm.

##### Revisiting the Slot-to-Coefficient Transformation for BGV and BFV

Robin Geelen

Numerous applications in homomorphic encryption require an operation that moves the slots of a ciphertext to the coefficients of a different ciphertext. For the BGV and BFV schemes, the only efficient algorithms to implement this slot-to-coefficient transformation were proposed in the setting of non-power-of-two cyclotomic rings. In this paper, we devise an FFT-like method to decompose the slot-to-coefficient transformation (and its inverse) for power-of-two cyclotomic rings. The proposed method can handle both fully and sparsely packed slots. Our algorithm brings down the computational complexity of the slot-to-coefficient transformation from a linear to a logarithmic number of FHE operations, which is shown via a detailed complexity analysis.

The new procedures are implemented in Microsoft SEAL for BFV. The experiments report a speedup of up to 44 times when packing 2^12 elements from GF(8191^8). We also study a fully packed bootstrapping operation that refreshes 2^15 elements from GF(65537) and obtain an amortized speedup of 12 times.

##### Efficient Algorithm for Generating Optimal Inequality Candidates for MILP Modeling of Boolean Functions

Alexander Bille, Elmar Tischhauser

Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) modeling has become an important tool for both the analysis and the design of symmetric cryptographic primitives. The bit-wise modeling of their nonlinear components, especially the S-boxes, is of particular interest since it allows more informative analysis compared to word-oriented models focusing on counting active S-boxes. At the same time, the size of these models, especially in terms of the number of required inequalities, tends to significantly influence and ultimately limit the applicability of this method to real-world ciphers, especially for larger number of rounds.

It is therefore of great cryptographic significance to study optimal linear inequality descriptions for Boolean functions. The pioneering works of Abdelkhalek et al. (FSE 2017), Boura and Coggia (FSE 2020) and Li and Sun (FSE 2023) provided various heuristic techniques for this computationally hard problem, decomposing it into two algorithmic steps, coined Problem 1 and Problem 2, with the latter being identical to the well-known NP-hard set cover problem, for which there are many heuristic and exact algorithms in the literature.

In this paper, we introduce a novel and efficient branch-and-bound algorithm for generating all minimal, non-redundant candidate inequalities that satisfy a given Boolean function, therefore solving Problem 1 in an optimal manner without relying on heuristics. We furthermore prove that our algorithm correctly computes optimal solutions. Using a number of dedicated optimizations, it provides significantly improved runtimes compared to previous approaches and allows the optimal modeling of the difference distribution tables (DDT) and linear approximation tables (LAT) of many practically used S-boxes. The source code for our algorithm is publicly available as a tool for researchers and practitioners in symmetric cryptography.

##### Finding Practical Parameters for Isogeny-based Cryptography

Maria Corte-Real Santos, Jonathan Komada Eriksen, Michael Meyer, Francisco Rodríguez-Henríquez

Isogeny-based schemes often come with special requirements on the field of definition of the involved elliptic curves. For instance, the efficiency of SQIsign, a promising candidate in the NIST signature standardisation process, requires a large power of two and a large smooth integer $T$ to divide $p^2-1$ for its prime parameter $p$. We present two new methods that combine previous techniques for finding suitable primes: sieve-and-boost and XGCD-and-boost. We use these methods to find primes for the NIST submission of SQIsign. Furthermore, we show that our methods are flexible and can be adapted to find suitable parameters for other isogeny-based schemes such as AprèsSQI or POKE. For all three schemes, the parameters we present offer the best performance among all parameters proposed in the literature.

##### Slalom at the Carnival: Privacy-preserving Inference with Masks from Public Knowledge

Ida Bruhns, Sebastian Berndt, Jonas Sander, Thomas Eisenbarth

Machine learning applications gain more and more access to highly sensitive information while simultaneously requiring more and more computation resources. Hence, the need for outsourcing these computational expensive tasks while still ensuring security and confidentiality of the data is imminent. In their seminal work, Tramer and Boneh presented the Slalom protocol for privacy-preserving inference by splitting the computation into a data-independent preprocessing phase and a very efficient online phase. In this work, we present a new method to significantly speed up the preprocessing phase by introducing the Carnival protocol. Carnival leverages the pseudo-randomness of the Subset sum problem to also enable efficient outsourcing during the preprocessing phase. In addition to a security proof we also include an empirical study analyzing the landscape of the uniformity of the output of the Subset sum function for smaller parameters. Our findings show that Carnival is a great candidate for real-world implementations.

##### Leakage Model-flexible Deep Learning-based Side-channel Analysis

Lichao Wu, Azade Rezaeezade, Amir Ali-pour, Guilherme Perin, Stjepan Picek

Profiling side-channel analysis has gained widespread acceptance in both academic and industrial realms due to its robust capacity to unveil protected secrets, even in the presence of countermeasures. To harness this capability, an adversary must access a clone of the target device to acquire profiling measurements, labeling them with leakage models. The challenge of finding an effective leakage model, especially for a protected dataset with a low signal-to-noise ratio or weak correlation between actual leakages and labels, often necessitates an intuitive engineering approach, as otherwise, the attack will not perform well.

In this paper, we introduce a deep learning approach with a flexible leakage model, referred to as the multi-bit model. Instead of trying to learn a pre-determined representation of the target intermediate data, we utilize the concept of the stochastic model to decompose the label into bits. Then, the deep learning model is used to classify each bit independently. This versatile multi-bit model can adjust to existing leakage models like the Hamming weight and Most Significant Bit while also possessing the flexibility to adapt to complex leakage scenarios. To further improve the attack efficiency, we extend the multi-bit model to profile all 16 subkey bytes simultaneously, which requires negligible computational effort. The experimental results show that the proposed methods can efficiently break all key bytes across four considered datasets while the conventional leakage models fail. Our work signifies a significant step forward in deep learning-based side-channel attacks, showcasing a high degree of flexibility and efficiency with the proposed leakage model.

##### Tweakable ForkCipher from Ideal Block Cipher

Sougata Mandal

In ASIACRYPT 2019, Andreeva et al. introduced a new symmetric key primitive called the forkcipher, designed for lightweight applications handling short messages. A forkcipher is a keyed function with a public tweak, featuring fixed-length input and fixed-length (expanding) output. They also proposed a specific forkcipher, ForkSkinny, based on the tweakable block cipher SKINNY, and its security was evaluated through cryptanalysis. Since then, several efficient AEAD and MAC schemes based on forkciphers have been proposed, catering not only to short messages but also to various purposes such as leakage resilience and cloud security. While forkciphers have proven to be efficient solutions for designing AEAD schemes, the area of forkcipher design remains unexplored, particularly the lack of provably secure forkcipher constructions.

In this work, we propose forkcipher design for various tweak lengths, based on a block cipher as the underlying primitive. We provide proofs of security for these constructions, assuming the underlying block cipher behaves as an ideal block cipher. First, we present a forkcipher, $\widetilde{\textsf{F}}1$, for an $n$-bit tweak and prove its optimal ($n$-bit) security. Next, we propose another construction, $\widetilde{\textsf{F}}2$, for a $2n$-bit tweak, also proving its optimal ($n$-bit) security. Finally, we introduce a construction, $\widetilde{\textsf{F}}r$, for a general $rn$-bit tweak, achieving $n$-bit security.

##### Attacking trapdoors from matrix products

Thomas Decru, Tako Boris Fouotsa, Paul Frixons, Valerie Gilchrist, Christophe Petit

Recently, Geraud-Stewart and Naccache proposed two trapdoors based on matrix products. In this paper, we answer the call for cryptanalysis. We explore how using the trace and determinant of a matrix can be used to attack their constructions. We fully break their first construction in a polynomial-time attack. We show an information leak in the second construction using characteristic polynomials, and provide two attacks that decrease the bit security by about half.

##### Information Theoretic Evaluation of Raccoon's Side-Channel Leakage

Dinal Kamel, François-Xavier Standaert, Olivier Bronchain

Raccoon is a lattice-based scheme submitted to the NIST 2022 call for additional post-quantum signatures. One of its main selling points is that its design is intrinsically easy to mask against side-channel attacks. So far, Raccoon's physical security guarantees were only stated in the abstract probing model. In this paper, we discuss how these probing security results translate into guarantees in more realistic leakage models. We also highlight that this translation differs from what is usually observed (e.g., in symmetric cryptography), due to the algebraic structure of Raccoon's operations. For this purpose, we perform an in-depth information theoretic evaluation of Raccoon's most innovative part, namely the AddRepNoise function which allows generating its arithmetic shares on-the-fly. Our results are twofold. First, we show that the resulting shares do not enforce a statistical security order (i.e., the need for the side-channel adversary to estimate higher-order moments of the leakage distribution), as usually expected when masking. Second, we observe that the first-order leakage on the (large) random coefficients manipulated by Raccoon cannot be efficiently turned into leakage on the (smaller) coefficients of its long-term secret. Concretely, our information theoretic evaluations for relevant leakage functions also suggest that Raccoon's masked implementations can ensure high security with less shares than suggested by a conservative analysis in the probing model.

##### Analysis of Layered ROLLO-I: A BII-LRPC code-based KEM

Seongtaek Chee, Kyung Chul Jeong, Tanja Lange, Nari Lee, Alex Pellegrini, Hansol Ryu

We analyze Layered ROLLO-I, a code-based cryptosystem published in IEEE Communications Letters and submitted to the Korean post-quantum cryptography competition. Four versions of Layered ROLLO-I have been proposed in the competition. We show that the first two versions do not provide the claimed security against rank decoding attacks and give reductions to small instances of the original ROLLO-I scheme, which was a candidate in the NIST competition and eliminated there due to rank decoding attacks. As a second contribution, we provide two efficient message recovery attacks, affecting every security level of the first three versions of Layered ROLLO-I and security levels 128 and 192 of the fourth version.

##### Efficient Boolean-to-Arithmetic Mask Conversion in Hardware

Aein Rezaei Shahmirzadi, Michael Hutter

Masking schemes are key in thwarting side-channel attacks due to their robust theoretical foundation. Transitioning from Boolean to arithmetic (B2A) masking is a necessary step in various cryptography schemes, including hash functions, ARX-based ciphers, and lattice-based cryptography. While there exists a significant body of research focusing on B2A software implementations, studies pertaining to hardware implementations are quite limited, with the majority dedicated solely to creating efficient Boolean masked adders. In this paper, we present first- and second-order secure hardware implementations to perform B2A mask conversion efficiently without using masked adder structures. We first introduce a first-order secure low-latency gadget that executes a B2A2k in a single cycle. Furthermore, we propose a second-order secure B2A2k gadget that has a latency of only 4 clock cycles. Both gadgets are independent of the input word size k. We then show how these new primitives lead to improved B2Aq hardware implementations that perform a B2A mask conversion of integers modulo an arbitrary number. Our results show that our new gadgets outperform comparable solutions by more than a magnitude in terms of resource requirements and are at least 3 times faster in terms of latency and throughput. All gadgets have been formally verified and proven secure in the glitch-robust PINI security model. We additionally confirm the security of our gadgets on an FPGA platform using practical TVLA tests.

##### Reinventing BrED: A Practical Construction Formal Treatment of Broadcast Encryption with Dealership

Avishek Majumder, Sayantan Mukherjee

Broadcast Encryption (BE) allows a sender to send an encrypted message to multiple receivers. In a typical broadcast encryption scenario, the broadcaster decides the set of users who can decrypt a particular ciphertext (denoted as the privileged set). Gritti et al. (IJIS'16) introduced a new primitive called Broadcast Encryption with Dealership (BrED), where the dealer decides the privileged set. A BrED scheme allows a dealer to buy content from the broadcaster and sell it to users. It provides better flexibility in managing a large user base. To date, quite a few different constructions of BrED schemes have been proposed by the research community.

We find that all existing BrED schemes are insecure under the existing security definitions. We demonstrate a concrete attack on all the existing schemes in the purview of the existing security definition. We also find that the security definitions proposed in the state-of-the-art BrED schemes do not capture the real world. We argue about the inadequacy of existing definitions and propose a new security definition that models the real world more closely. Finally, we propose a new BrED construction and prove it to be secure in our newly proposed security model.

##### Exponent-Inversion P-Signatures and Accountable Identity-Based Encryption from SXDH

Tsz Hon Yuen, Sherman S. M. Chow, Huangting Wu, Cong Zhang, Siu-Ming Yiu

Salient in many cryptosystems, the exponent-inversion technique began without randomization in the random oracle model (SCIS '03, PKC '04), evolved into the Boneh-Boyen short signature scheme (JoC '08) and exerted a wide influence. Seen as a notable case, Gentry's (EuroCrypt '06) identity-based encryption (IBE) applies exponent inversion on a randomized base in its identity-based trapdoors. Making use of the non-static q-strong Diffie-Hellman assumption, Boneh-Boyen signatures are shown to be unforgeable against q-chosen-message attacks, while a variant q-type decisional assumption is used to establish the security of Gentry-IBE. Challenges remain in proving their security under weaker static assumptions.

Supported by the dual form/system framework (Crypto '09, AsiaCrypt '12), we propose dual form exponent-inversion Boneh-Boyen signatures and Gentry-IBE, with security proven under the symmetric external Diffie-Hellman (SXDH) assumption. Starting from our signature scheme, we extend it into P-signatures (TCC '08), resulting in the first anonymous credential scheme from the SXDH assumption, serving as a competitive alternative to the static-assumption construction of Abe et al. (JoC '16). Moreover, from our Gentry-IBE variant, we propose an accountable-authority IBE scheme also from SXDH, surpassing the fully secure Sahai-Seyalioglu scheme (PKC '11) in efficiency and the generic Kiayias-Tang transform (ESORICS '15) in security. Collectively, we present a suite of results under static assumptions.