Communications in Cryptology IACR CiC
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  1. Mustafa Khairallah
    Published 2024-04-09 PDFPDF

    The size of the authentication tag represents a significant overhead for applications that are limited by bandwidth or memory. Hence, some authenticated encryption designs have a smaller tag than the required privacy level, which was also suggested by the NIST lightweight cryptography standardization project. In the ToSC 2022, two papers have raised questions about the IND-CCA security of AEAD schemes in this situation. These papers show that (a) online AE cannot provide IND-CCA security beyond the tag length, and (b) it is possible to have IND-CCA security beyond the tag length in a restricted Encode-then-Encipher framework. In this paper, we address some of the remaining gaps in this area. Our main result is to show that, for a fixed stretch, Pseudo-Random Injection security implies IND-CCA security as long as the minimum ciphertext size is at least as large as the required IND-CCA security level. We also show that this bound is tight and that any AEAD scheme that allows empty plaintexts with a fixed stretch cannot achieve IND-CCA security beyond the tag length. Next, we look at the weaker notion of MRAE security, and show that two-pass schemes that achieve MRAE security do not achieve IND-CCA security beyond the tag size. This includes SIV and rugged PRPs.

  2. Marcel Tiepelt, Christian Martin, Nils Maeurer
    Published 2024-04-09 PDFPDF

    Transitioning from classically to quantum secure key agreement protocols may require to exchange fundamental components, for example, exchanging Diffie-Hellman-like key exchange with a key encapsulation mechanism (KEM). Accordingly, the corresponding security proof can no longer rely on the Diffie-Hellman assumption, thus invalidating the security guarantees. As a consequence, the security properties have to be re-proven under a KEM-based security notion.

    We initiate the study of the LDACS key agreement protocol (Edition 01.01.00 from 25.04.2023), which is soon-to-be-standardized by the International Civil Aviation Organization. The protocol's cipher suite features Diffie-Hellman as well as a KEM-based key agreement protocol to provide post-quantum security. While the former results in an instantiation of an ISO key agreement inheriting all security properties, the security achieved by the latter is ambiguous. We formalize the computational security using the systematic notions of de Saint Guilhem, Fischlin and Warinshi (CSF '20), and prove the exact security that the KEM-based variant achieves in this model; primarily entity authentication, key secrecy and key authentication. To further strengthen our “pen-and-paper” findings, we model the protocol and its security guarantees using Tamarin, providing an automated proof of the security against a Dolev-Yao attacker.

  3. Fabio Campos, Jorge Chávez-Saab, Jesús-Javier Chi-Domínguez, Michael Meyer, Krijn Reijnders, Francisco Rodríguez-Henríquez, Peter Schwabe, Thom Wiggers
    Published 2024-04-09 PDFPDF

    In this work, we assess the real-world practicality of CSIDH, an isogeny-based non-interactive key exchange. We provide the first thorough assessment of the practicality of CSIDH in higher parameter sizes for conservative estimates of quantum security, and with protection against physical attacks.

    This requires a three-fold analysis of CSIDH. First, we describe two approaches to efficient high-security CSIDH implementations, based on SQALE and CTIDH. Second, we optimize such high-security implementations, on a high level by improving several subroutines, and on a low level by improving the finite field arithmetic. Third, we benchmark the performance of high-security CSIDH. As a stand-alone primitive, our implementations outperform previous results by a factor up to 2.53×.

    As a real-world use case considering network protocols, we use CSIDH in TLS variants that allow early authentication through a NIKE. Although our instantiations of CSIDH have smaller communication requirements than post-quantum KEM and signature schemes, even our highly-optimized implementations result in too-large handshake latency (tens of seconds), showing that CSIDH is only practical in niche cases.