##### 13 results sorted by publication date

YOSO MPC (Gentry et al., Crypto 2021) is a new MPC framework where each participant can speak at most once. This models an adaptive adversary’s ability to watch the network and corrupt or destroy parties it deems significant based on their communication. By using private channels to anonymous receivers (e.g. by encrypting to a public key whose owner is unknown), the communication complexity of YOSO MPC can scale sublinearly with the total number N of available parties, even when the adversary’s corruption threshold is linear in N (e.g. just under N/2). It was previously an open problem whether YOSO MPC can achieve guaranteed output delivery in a constant number of rounds without relying on trusted setup. In this work, we show that this can indeed be accomplished. We demonstrate three different approaches: the first two (which we call YaOSO and YOSO-GLS) use two and three rounds of communication, respectively. Our third approach (which we call YOSO-LHSS) uses O(d) rounds, where d is the multiplicative depth of the circuit being evaluated; however, it can be used to bootstrap any constant-round YOSO protocol that requires setup, by generating that setup within YOSO-LHSS. Though YOSO-LHSS requires more rounds than our first two approaches, it may be more practical, since the zero knowledge proofs it employs are more efficient to instantiate. As a contribution of independent interest, we introduce a verifiable state propagation UC functionality, which allows parties to send private message which are verifiably derived in the “correct” way (according to the protocol in question) to anonymous receivers. This is a natural functionality to build YOSO protocols on top of.

For more than two decades, pairings have been a fundamental tool for designing elegant cryptosystems, varying from digital signature schemes to more complex privacy-preserving constructions. However, the advancement of quantum computing threatens to undermine public-key cryptography. Concretely, it is widely accepted that a future large-scale quantum computer would be capable to break any public-key cryptosystem used today, rendering today's public-key cryptography obsolete and mandating the transition to quantum-safe cryptographic solutions. This necessity is enforced by numerous recognized government bodies around the world, including NIST which initiated the first open competition in standardizing post-quantum (PQ) cryptographic schemes, focusing primarily on digital signatures and key encapsulation/public-key encryption schemes. Despite the current efforts in standardizing PQ primitives, the landscape of complex, privacy-preserving cryptographic protocols, e.g., zkSNARKs/zkSTARKs, is at an early stage. Existing solutions suffer from various disadvantages in terms of efficiency and compactness and in addition, they need to undergo the required scrutiny to gain the necessary trust in the academic and industrial domains. Therefore, it is believed that the migration to purely quantum-safe cryptography would require an intermediate step where current classically secure protocols and quantum-safe solutions will co-exist. This is enforced by the report of the Commercial National Security Algorithm Suite version 2.0, mandating transition to quantum-safe cryptographic algorithms by 2033 and suggesting to incorporate ECC at 192-bit security in the meantime. To this end, the present paper aims at providing a comprehensive study on pairings at 192-bit security level. We start with an exhaustive review in the literature to search for all possible recommendations of such pairing constructions, from which we extract the most promising candidates in terms of efficiency and security, with respect to the advanced Special TNFS attacks. Our analysis is focused, not only on the pairing computation itself, but on additional operations that are relevant in pairing-based applications, such as hashing to pairing groups, cofactor clearing and subgroup membership testing. We implement all functionalities of the most promising candidates within the RELIC cryptographic toolkit in order to identify the most efficient pairing implementation at 192-bit security and provide extensive experimental results.

To address security issues in cloud computing, fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) enables a third party to evaluate functions using ciphertexts that do not leak information to the cloud server. The remaining problems of FHE include high computational costs and limited arithmetic operations, only evaluating additions and multiplications. Arbitrary functions can be evaluated using a precomputed lookup table (LUT), which is one of the solutions for those problems. Previous studies proposed LUT-enabled computation methods 1) with bit-wise FHE and 2) with word-wise FHE. The performance of LUT-enabled computation with bit-wise FHE drops quickly when evaluating BigNum functions because of the complexity being O(s·2^d·m), where m represents the number of inputs, d and s represent the bit lengths of the inputs and outputs, respectively. Thus, LUT-enabled computation with word-wise FHE, which handles a set of bits with one operation, has also been proposed; however, previous studies are limited in evaluating multivariate functions within two inputs and cannot speed up the evaluation when the domain size of the integer exceeds 2N, where N is the number of elements packed into a single ciphertext. In this study, we propose a non-interactive model, in which no decryption is required, to evaluate arbitrary multivariate functions using homomorphic table lookup with word-wise FHE. The proposed LUT-enabled computation method 1) decreases the complexity to O(2^d·m/l), where l is the element size of FHE packing; 2) extends the input and output domain sizes to evaluate multivariate functions over two inputs; and 3) adopts a multidimensional table for enabling multithreading to reduce latency. The experimental results demonstrate that evaluating a 10-bit two-input function and a 5-bit three-input function takes approximately 90.5 and 105.5 s with 16-thread, respectively. Our proposed method achieves 3.2x and 23.1x speedup to evaluate two-bit and three-bit 3-input functions compared with naive LUT-enabled computation with bit-wise FHE.

We analyze the multi-user (mu) security of a family of nonce-based authentication encryption (nAE) schemes based on a tweakable block cipher (TBC). The starting point of our work is an analysis of the mu security of the SCT-II mode which underlies the nAE scheme Deoxys-II, winner of the CAESAR competition for the defense-in-depth category. We extend this analysis in two directions, as we detail now.

First, we investigate the mu security of several TBC-based variants of the counter encryption mode (including CTRT, the encryption mode used within SCT-II) that differ by the way a nonce, a random value, and a counter are combined as tweak and plaintext inputs to the TBC to produce the keystream blocks that will mask the plaintext blocks. Then, we consider the authentication part of SCT-II and study the mu security of the nonce-based MAC Nonce-as-Tweak (NaT) built from a TBC and an almost universal (AU) hash function. We also observe that the standard construction of an AU hash function from a (T)BC can be proven secure under the assumption that the underlying TBC is unpredictable rather than pseudorandom, allowing much better conjectures on the concrete AU advantage. This allows us to derive the mu security of the family of nAE modes obtained by combining these encryption/MAC building blocks through the NSIV composition method.

Some of these modes require an underlying TBC with a larger tweak length than what is usually available for existing ones. We then show the practicality of our modes by instantiating them with two new TBC constructions, Deoxys-TBC-512 and Deoxys-TBC-640, which can be seen as natural extensions of the Deoxys-TBC family to larger tweak input sizes. Designing such TBCs with unusually large tweaks is prone to pitfalls: Indeed, we show that a large-tweak proposal for SKINNY published at EUROCRYPT 2020 presents an inherent construction flaw. We therefore provide a sound design strategy to construct large-tweak TBCs within the Superposition Tweakey (STK) framework, leading to new Deoxys-TBC and SKINNY variants. We provide software benchmarks indicating that while ensuring a very high security level, the performances of our proposals remain very competitive.

Public-key searchable encryption allows keyword-associated tokens to be used to test if a ciphertext contains specific keywords. Due to the low entropies of keywords, the token holder can create ciphertexts from candidate keywords and test them using the token in hand to recover the keywords, known as inside keyword guessing attacks (IKGA). Public-key authenticated encryption with keyword search is a searchable encryption proposed to defend against such attacks. It ensures the sender's private key protects the ciphertexts from the IKGA. PAEKS schemes with reasonable security and practical efficiency remain elusive despite many proposals. This work provides a simple generic PAEKS scheme from non-interactive key exchange (NIKE) and symmetric-key equality-predicate encryption with three new constructions for the latter, respectively from pseudorandom functions (PRFs), the decision bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption, and the learning-with-errors assumption. Instantiating our generic scheme, we derive several PAEKS schemes from the most well-known assumptions, with some of them achieving full cipher-keyword indistinguishability and full token indistinguishability in the standard model, for the first time. Our instantiated schemes allow practical implementations and outperform the existing PAEKS schemes under the same assumptions.

In this paper, we aim to explore the design of low-latency authenticated encryption schemes particularly for memory encryption, with a focus on the temporal uniqueness property. To achieve this, we present the low-latency Pseudo-Random Function (PRF) called Twinkle with an output up to 1152 bits. Leveraging only one block of Twinkle, we developed Twinkle-AE, a specialized authenticated encryption scheme with six variants covering different cache line sizes and security requirements. We also propose Twinkle-PA, a pointer authentication algorithm, which takes a 64-bit pointer and 64-bit context as input and outputs a tag of 1 to 32 bits.

We conducted thorough security evaluations of both the PRFs and these schemes, examining their robustness against various common attacks. The results of our cryptanalysis indicate that these designs successfully achieve their targeted security objectives.

Hardware implementations using the FreePDK45nm library show that Twinkle-AE achieves an encryption and authentication latency of 3.83 ns for a cache line. In comparison, AES-CTR with WC-MAC scheme and Ascon-128a achieve latencies of 9.78 ns and 27.30 ns, respectively. Moreover, Twinkle-AE is also most area-effective for the 1024-bit cache line. For the pointer authentication scheme Twinkle-PA, the latency is 2.04 ns, while QARMA-64-sigma0 has a latency of 5.57 ns.

Traitor tracing schemes [Chor–Fiat–Naor, Crypto ’94] help content distributors fight against piracy and are defined with the content distributor as a trusted authority having access to the secret keys of all users. While the traditional model caters well to its original motivation, its centralized nature makes it unsuitable for many scenarios. For usage among mutually untrusted parties, a notion of *ad hoc* traitor tracing (naturally with the capability of broadcast and revocation) is proposed and studied in this work. Such a scheme allows users in the system to generate their own public/secret key pairs, without trusting any other entity. To encrypt, a list of public keys is used to identify the set of recipients, and decryption is possible with a secret key for any of the public keys in the list. In addition, there is a tracing algorithm that given a list of recipients’ public keys and a pirate decoder capable of decrypting ciphertexts encrypted to them, identifies at least one recipient whose secret key must have been used to construct the said decoder.

Two constructions are presented. The first is based on functional encryption for circuits (conceptually, obfuscation) and has constant-size ciphertext, yet its decryption time is linear in the number of recipients. The second is a generic transformation that reduces decryption time at the cost of increased ciphertext size. A matching lower bound on the trade-off between ciphertext size and decryption time is shown, indicating that the two constructions achieve all possible optimal trade-offs, i.e., they fully demonstrate the Pareto front of efficiency. The lower bound also applies to broadcast encryption (hence all mildly expressive attribute-based encryption schemes) and is of independent interest.

Decentralized Multi-Client Functional Encryption (DMCFE) extends the basic functional encryption to multiple clients that do not trust each other. They can independently encrypt the multiple plaintext-inputs to be given for evaluation to the function embedded in the functional decryption key, defined by multiple parameter-inputs. And they keep control on these functions as they all have to contribute to the generation of the functional decryption keys. Tags can be used in the ciphertexts and the keys to specify which inputs can be combined together. As any encryption scheme, DMCFE provides privacy of the plaintexts. But the functions associated to the functional decryption keys might be sensitive too (e.g. a model in machine learning). The function-hiding property has thus been introduced to additionally protect the function evaluated during the decryption process.

In this paper, we provide new proof techniques to analyze a new concrete construction of function-hiding DMCFE for inner products, with strong security guarantees: the adversary can adaptively query multiple challenge ciphertexts and multiple challenge keys, with unbounded repetitions of the same tags in the ciphertext-queries and a fixed polynomially-large number of repetitions of the same tags in the key-queries. Previous constructions were proven secure in the selective setting only.

The adversary model of white-box cryptography includes an extreme case where the adversary, sitting at the endpoint, has full access to a cryptographic scheme. Motivating by the fact that most existing white-box implementations focus on symmetric encryption, we present implementations for hash-based signatures so that the security against white-box attackers (who have read-only access to data with a size bounded by a space-hardness parameter M) depends on the availability of a white-box secure cipher (in addition to a general one-way function). We also introduce parameters and key-generation complexity results for white-box secure instantiation of stateless hash-based signature scheme SPHINCS+, one of the NIST selections for quantum-resistant digital signature algorithms, and its older version SPHINCS. We also present a hash tree-based solution for one-time passwords secure in a white-box attacker context. We implement the proposed solutions and share our performance results.

Verifiable encryption (VE) is a protocol where one can provide assurance that an encrypted plaintext satisfies certain properties, or relations. It is an important building block in cryptography with many useful applications, such as key escrow, group signatures, optimistic fair exchange, and others. However, the majority of previous VE schemes are restricted to instantiation with specific public-key encryption schemes or relations. In this work, we propose a novel framework that realizes VE protocols using zero-knowledge proof systems based on the MPC-in-the-head paradigm (Ishai et al. STOC 2007). Our generic compiler can turn a large class of zero-knowledge proofs into secure VE protocols for any secure public-key encryption scheme with the undeniability property, a notion that essentially guarantees binding of encryption when used as a commitment scheme. Our framework is versatile: because the circuit proven by the MPC-in-the-head prover is decoupled from a complex encryption function, the work of the prover is focused on proving the encrypted data satisfies the relation, not the proof of plaintext knowledge. Hence, our approach allows for instantiation with various combinations of properties about the encrypted data and encryption functions. We then consider concrete applications, to demonstrate the efficiency of our framework, by first giving a new approach and implementation to verifiably encrypt discrete logarithms in any prime order group more efficiently than was previously known. Then we give the first practical verifiable encryption scheme for AES keys with post-quantum security, along with an implementation and benchmarks.

The problem of Broadcast Encryption (BE) consists in broadcasting an encrypted message to a large number of users or receiving devices in such a way that the emitter of the message can control which of the users can or cannot decrypt it.

Since the early 1990s, the design of BE schemes has received significant interest and many different concepts were proposed. A major breakthrough was achieved by Naor, Naor and Lotspiech (CRYPTO 2001) by partitioning cleverly the set of authorized users and associating a symmetric key to each subset. Since then, while there have been many advances in public-key based BE schemes, mostly based on bilinear maps, little was made on symmetric cryptography.

In this paper, we design a new symmetric-based BE scheme, named $\Sigma\Pi$BE, that relies on logic optimization and consensual security assumptions. It is competitive with the work of Naor et al. and provides a different tradeoff: the bandwidth requirement is significantly lowered at the cost of an increase in the key storage.

There has been a recent interest in proposing quantum protocols whose security relies on weaker computational assumptions than their classical counterparts. Importantly to our work, it has been recently shown that public-key encryption (PKE) from one-way functions (OWF) is possible if we consider quantum public keys. Notice that we do not expect classical PKE from OWF given the impossibility results of Impagliazzo and Rudich (STOC'89).

However, the distribution of quantum public keys is a challenging task. Therefore, the main question that motivates our work is if quantum PKE from OWF is possible if we have classical public keys. Such protocols are impossible if ciphertexts are also classical, given the impossibility result of Austrin et al.(CRYPTO'22) of quantum enhanced key-agreement (KA) with classical communication.

In this paper, we focus on black-box separation for PKE with classical public key and quantum ciphertext from OWF under the polynomial compatibility conjecture, first introduced in Austrin et al.. More precisely, we show the separation when the decryption algorithm of the PKE does not query the OWF. We prove our result by extending the techniques of Austrin et al. and we show an attack for KA in an extended classical communication model where the last message in the protocol can be a quantum state.