Communications in Cryptology IACR CiC
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  1. Thomas Pornin
    Published 2024-04-09 PDFPDF

    This paper describes a generic methodology for obtaining unified, and then complete formulas for a prime-order group abstraction homomorphic to a subgroup of an elliptic curve with even order. The method is applicable to any curve with even order, in finite fields of both even and odd characteristic; it is most efficient on curves with order equal to 2 modulo 4, dubbed "double-odd curves". In large characteristic fields, we obtain doubling formulas with cost as low as 1M + 5S, and the resulting group allows building schemes such as signatures that outperform existing fast solutions, e.g. Ed25519. In binary fields, the obtained formulas are not only complete but also faster than previously known incomplete formulas; we can sign and verify in as low as 18k and 27k cycles on x86 CPUs, respectively.

  2. Damien Robert, Nicolas Sarkis
    Published 2024-04-09 PDFPDF

    We use theta groups to study $2$-isogenies between Kummer lines, with a particular focus on the Montgomery model. This allows us to recover known formulas, along with more efficient forms for translated isogenies, which require only $2S+2m_0$ for evaluation. We leverage these translated isogenies to build a hybrid ladder for scalar multiplication on Montgomery curves with rational $2$-torsion, which cost $3M+6S+2m_0$ per bit, compared to $5M+4S+1m_0$ for the standard Montgomery ladder.